A Holistic Approach Towards the Recycling of Used Lead–Acid Batteries

Lead–acid batteries are the predominant option for effective, affordable and sustainable energy-storage devices. The lead metal content of the battery constitutes more than 70% of the cost and so recycling used lead–acid batteries (ULABs) not only conserves resources, but also reduces the environmental impact. The economics of recycling is the fundamental key to the viability of the entire i... more info

Vijay Kumar Pareek
Gravita India Ltd
Executive Director

A Low-temperature, Non-polluting, Recycling Process for Used Lead–Acid Batteries

In March 2018, VerdeEn Chemicals received a grant from the Government of India to develop a proprietary low-temperature, pH-basic, electrochemical process for recycling used lead–acid batteries (ULABs). The grant has enabled the company to set up an automated, modular pilot-plant with a production capacity of 2 tonnes of pure lead per day. Currently, these modules are toll recycling ULABs for ... more info

Vipin Tyagi
VerdeEn Chemicals
CEO & Co-Founder

By-products from the Metallurgical Industry – Case Study: Slags from Primary Lead Production

Developments in the supply of raw materials are characterized by decreasing metal grades and still relatively low recycling rates. While the recycling of metallic scrap is nowadays state-of-the-art, metal-containing by-products from the metallurgical industry represent a new potential secondary resource. Typical by-products such as slags, sludge or dust become more and more important because suc... more info

Juergen Antrekowitsch
University of Leoben
Associate Professor

Commodity price risk management – a simplified approach to protect margins

The LME is the world centre for commodity metals trading. The prices discovered on our trading platforms are used as the global reference price and both the metal and investment communities use the LME to transfer and/or take on price risk, 24 hours a day. This presentation will illustrate to delegates how to identify price risk and how to use the LME to hedge this risk and gain protection again... more info

Edric Koh
London Metal Exchange
Head of Corporate Sales, Asia

Current Developments in Asian Secondary Lead Production

China’s secondary lead industry, which produces by far the largest volume of recycled lead globally, has undergone wholesale restructuring and technical reform over the past two to three years. With a new generation of large-scale facilities recently completed, or currently under construction, that meet present environmental standards, the industry may be set to enjoy a period of relative calm ... more info

Huw Roberts
CHR Metals

Do recent developments in the global regulatory landscape really threaten the future of the lead battery?

The market for lead now depends on the future of the lead battery. Whilst the huge increases in global energy demand open new opportunities for energy-storage applications, there are real question marks as to whether lead batteries will benefit from this revolution as a result of regulation that is pushing for substitution or increasing operating costs. The presentation will provide an overview o... more info

Steve Binks
International Lead Association
Regulatory Affairs Director

Eliminating Informal Recycling of Used Lead–Acid Batteries

The Lead Battery industry should be a model for a sustainable circular economy with over 95% of used lead–acid batteries (ULABs) being recycled, i.e., more than any other commodity! Nevertheless, irrespective of the efforts made by lead smelters in the OECD and many emerging economies to raise the standards of performance for Occupational Health, Worker Safety and Environmental Management, the i... more info

Brian Wilson

Environmentally friendly, sustainable and commercial-scale production of highly pure ‘battery-ready’ leady oxide via hydrometallurgical processing of spent battery paste

Our aim is to revolutionise the art of recycling through science, ethical practice, sustainability and technology. Our vision is a web of industries, where one stream's waste is another stream's feedstock – bridging linear and wasteful processes to create circular, energy efficient, non-polluting, zero-waste industries. Our stepping stone towards this vision is a technology for the recycling of ... more info

Dr Athan Fox
Chief Technology & Innovation Officer

How Recycling is Changing the Lead–Acid Battery Economy in the Middle East

The number of passenger cars in the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) is estimated to increase by an average of 7.4% annually to hit 19.1 million by 2020. This development is in line both with a population forecast of 53.5 million by 2020 and with an expected 56% growth in the GDP. Despite the anticipated increase in the market for battery electric vehicles powered by lithium-ion technology, it is ... more info

Salam Al Sharif
BIR Amb. Comm. Chairman, BMR Hon. Chairman
Sharif Metals Group Chairman

Lead Recycling in India – New Challenges and Opportunities

Lead is an excellent example of sustainable development within a circular economic model because it is the most recycled commodity, bar none. In the Sixties and Seventies, India was completely dependent on imported lead metal. Not surprisingly, some five decades ago, India began to recycle used lead–acid batteries (ULABs), albeit in modest tonnages and a somewhat crude manner. Fifty years ... more info

Pugazhenthy Lakshmanan
India Lead Zinc Development Association
Executive Director

Lowering Emissions in a Secondary Lead Smelter ― A Case History

Notwithstanding the fact that the CX® Process is acknowledged as one of the Best Available Technologies (B.A.T.) in the recycling of used lead–acid batteries, the technology is always under review and continuous improvement. The focus is on reducing any adverse environmental impact, complying with ever more stringent environmental regulation, minimizing operating costs, and increasing the effi... more info

Massimo Sbrosi
Engitec Technologies SPA

Occupational Health Workshop: Battery Manufacturing and Recycling

Recent scientific evaluations have suggested that long-standing occupational exposure limits for lead established by regulators in many regions are no longer protective of the health of employees. For example, in 2017 the ACGIH established a new health based biological exposure index (BEI) of 20µg/dL for male workers and several recent evaluations have proposed blood lead removal limits of 30µg/... more info

Brian Wilson

Steve Binks
International Lead Association
Regulatory Affairs Director

Oxy E Burner Combustion Technology for Lead Recycling Furnaces

Combustion emissions are a key concern in pyrometallurgical recycling of lead. Oxy-combustion is an established technology for recycling used lead acid batteries (ULABs) and other lead scrap. Not only does it reduce the carbon footprint, but also improves productivity and reduces fuel consumption. This presentation will explain how to adopt and adapt an oxy-combustion burner to control the smel... more info

Genaro Guinto
Air Liquide
Combustion Application Engineer

Shashwat Bandyopadhyay
Air Liquide

Plant-Wide Air Pollution Controls – Case Studies

To be successful, the manufacturing and recycling of lead–acid batteries requires a holistic approach to air filtration in order to sustain regulatory compliance and maintain factory output. In fact, these goals are complementary but only careful choices in overall system design and implementation will yield consistent results. New technologies developed by Nederman MikroPul can ensure complia... more info

John Fields
Nederman MikroPul
VP Global Strategic Accounts

Recycling Lead in China

This presentation briefly describes the background to the Chinese lead-recycling industry, lead consumption and the global market, together with trends, opportunities and forecasts for the secondary lead market. An analysis will be given of the market investment in the secondary lead industry, and the latest environmental protection policies and legislation. An examination of the secondary lead ... more info

Dong Li
Leoch Battery Pte Ltd

Recycling Used Lead-Acid Batteries in Honduras – A Journey to Establish a Model Operation

Before 2009, most of the used leadacid batteries (ULABs) in Central America were irresponsibly drained of the acid electrolyte and then shipped to Asia, under a variety of descriptions, for recycling. Having identified this unsatisfactory and damaging process, Invema set out to establish an environmentally-sound ULAB recycling plant called Molden in Honduras. Initially, the facility struggled... more info

George Gatlin

Refractories for Recycling Lead

Reverberatory and rotary furnaces are widely used for recovery lead from battery scrap. This scrap consists of pure metallic lead and antimonial lead from battery plate grids, connectors and terminals. Also contained in the batteries is the paste (a mixture of lead sulfate and oxide) resulting from electrolytic action during the life of battery. Up to 98% lead may be recovered from the metallic c... more info

Herman Wijaya Santoso
PT. Harbison Walker International
Sales Manager

Remediating Lead-Contaminated Sites Polluted by Informal Lead Smelters

Even though leaded gasoline has been banned in most countries, populations in low- and middle-income countries are still exposed to high levels of lead from other sources. Data published in 2019 by International Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates that lead might have been a causal factor in more than 1 000 000 deaths every year globally. This figure is greater than deaths due to mala... more info

Budi Susilorini Slamet
Pure Earth/Blacksmith Institute
Indonesia Country Director

Residues from Hydrometallurgical Zinc industry as a Promising Source of Lead and Silver

The ever-growing demand of raw materials, especially metals, makes it necessary to use more and more deposits and ores of decreasing quality. This causes an increasing amount of waste material that must be dumped. Moreover, these residues often contain considerable amounts of various metals such as lead, zinc and silver that are costly mined somewhere else. One reason for this paradox is that t... more info

Gustav Hanke
University of Leoben
Project Manager

Short course: Metallurgical thermodynamics applied to lead recycling

This short course discusses the basic tools of metallurgical thermodynamics and their application, with a special focus on lead recycling. The starting point for the understanding of any metallurgical system is often the phase diagram. We discuss how to interpret a phase diagram, which type of information can be retrieved from it, as well as its link to the Gibbs energy description in thermody... more info

Sander Arnout
InsPyro NV
Managing Director

Solvent-based Recycling of Lead-Acid Batteries

Smelting is an established and well-optimised route to recover lead from used leadacid batteries (ULABs). Nevertheless, recent developments in the regulatory framework and changing trends in the battery market will be potentially challenge the lead industry in the coming years. On the other hand, the environmental demands can also be used as an opportunity to shift current recycling technolog... more info

A.K. Ola Hekselman
Imperial College London
Research Associate

The latest technologies for recycling used lead–acid batteries

Lead–acid batteries are one of the most recycled products in the world. With the ever-increasing demand for an environmentally-sound process, it is important for recycling facilities to be on the front-end of leading technologies. Traditionally, it has been difficult for small-scale operations globally to operate safely and be profitable. The presentation gives an overview of the latest techn... more info

Robert N Wirtz
Wirtz Manufacturing Company, Inc.
Director of Engineering

The Prevention of Take Home Lead Helps to Reduce Turnover Rates

Workers who take home lead from work expose their families to lead and have personal exposure that continues for 24 hours. They have higher blood lead levels than their co-workers. Workers with elevated blood lead levels have greater turnover rates. In a strong and growing economy with plenty of jobs available, the lead industry must compete for workers. A worker with excess lead exposure feels p... more info

Daniel P Askin
ESCA Tech, Inc.

UN Environment’s Work on Lead-Acid Batteries

The market for lead–acid batteries, which accounts for more than 80% of the global demand for lead, is increasing rapidly in developing countries. Nevertheless, in these countries, improper recycling of used lead–acid batteries (ULABs) is causing major sustainability and population exposure problems. In this context, the third session of the United Nations Environment Assembly (UNEA) in Dece... more info

Desiree Montecillo-Narvaez
United Nations
Programme Officer - Chemicals and Health Branch, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)